A manuscript for "Jungle Emperor Leo"
The November 1950 issue of the "Manga Shonen" magazine
In 1950, Tezuka Osamu joined the Tokyo Children's Manga Association (Jiman Nagaya), which was formed with Shimada Keizo as its leader, and he was the only Osaka-based member of the society. Other members included Baba Noboru and Fukui Eiichi. In April, Tezuka Osamu's manga "Strange Travel of Dr. Tiger" was first published in the publisher Shinseikaku's monthly magazine "Manga to Yomimono" in serial form. In November, the manga "Jungle Emperor Leo," which later became one of his most important works, began to appear serially in the publisher Gakudosha's "Manga Shonen" magazine. Originally, "Jungle Emperor Leo" was newly written for the "Akahon." When Tezuka visited the offices of Gakudosha, however, the manuscripts attracted the attention of Kato Kenichi, basically the chief editor of the magazine, who happened to read them, and Tezuka Osamu hastily rewrote them to be published in the form of a long serial manga. Furthermore, in April of the following year, "Captain Atom," the predecessor of "Astro Boy," began to appear in Kobunsha's magazine "Shonen." Tezuka Osamu's popularity thus spread from the local "Akahon" in Osaka to national magazines.
"The Phoenix," "Astro Boy," "Princess Knight," "Son-goku the Monkey," and "The Adventure of Rock" published in supplement form
During the mid-1950s, Manga publishing entered the age of monthly magazines. Monthly Manga magazines struggled for popular Manga artist and competed with one another for readers by adding voluminous supplements. Hardly taking time out for sleep, Tezuka Osamu wrote many serial Manga and contributed his complete-in-one-issue manga as supplements
The Star System
The Star System
Tezuka Osamu, influenced by Takarazuka Revue and student drama, developed the "star system" in which he treated his manga characters as if they were members of a theater company and made the characters of one of his Manga play different roles in others. Depending on the story, Tezuka Osamu made a character wear a different kind of makeup and tailored its behavior, thus making it friendlier. His characters were allotted to one of the studios that remind one of the Takarazuka Revue Company's troupe systems. Kenichi and Rock, who were among the leading characters in Tezuka Osamu's early works, were treated as freelancers that could appear in any manga. The Star Directory he compiled in the early 1950s contained organized descriptions of his leading manga characters with clippings of their images from manga books attached. In addition, the Directory even contained a list of manga in which the characters appeared for the first time and in subsequent years, major roles they played, and performance fees paid to them.
A diagram of backgrounds
A diagram of backgrounds
A list of colors
Initially, in order to meet Tezuka Osamu's crammed work schedule, he had editors assisting him in his work. Soon, however, fledgling cartoonists started to assist him. Among them were Matsumoto Reiji, Yokoyama Mitsuteru, and Ishinomori Shotaro. Furthermore, Tezuka Osamu established a Manga production system by, for example, introducing a list of instructions in which he designated specific colors and italic lines that he wanted used. He thus laid the foundation for today's assistant system and production system for Manga.
With other Manga artists at Tokiwaso
In 1953, Tezuka Osamu moved to the Tokiwaso apartment in Shiinamachi, Tokyo. Following Tezuka Osamu, Terada Hiroo moved into the apartment. Later, after Tezuka Osamu left, Abiko Motoo and Fujimoto Hiroshi (Fujiko Fujio) also moved into the same place, followed by Suzuki Shinichi, Ishinomori Shotaro, Akatsuka Fujio, Moriyasu Naoya, Mizuno Hideko, and Yokota Tokuo, etc. Even Nagata Takemaru, Tsunoda Jiro, and Hase Kunio, who all lived in Tokyo, gathered there, suddenly making Tokiwaso a hotspot among young ambitious Manga artists.